This 2009 NSA presentation, based on an internal agency newsletter article from 20 March that year, describes the growth in airlines offering onboard mobile phone services, which the Agency had alreadyu been actively collecting for at least a year: see the Intercept article American and British Spy Agencies Targeted In-flight Mobile Phone Use, 7 December 2016.
This 18 May 2010 article from the NSA internal newsletter SIDToday outlines how the agency is reacting to the growth of mobile phone services on board commercial aircraft: see the Intercept article American and British Spy Agencies Targeted In-flight Mobile Phone Use, 7 December 2016.
This 24 page white paper dated 1 October 2012 describes and evaluates some of the Co-Traveller tools the NSA and partner agencies uses to analyse phone location data: see the Washington Post article New documents show how the NSA infers relationships based on mobile location data, 10 December 2013.
This excerpt from an NSA training manual shows the use of TAPERLAY and CHALKFUN tools. The former looks up the provider and country where a phone was first activated and the latter searches the FASCIA database to find a mobile phone’s past or current location: see the Washington Post article NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show, 4 December 2013.